Part 1: Glory Filled The Land

Chapter 1: The Glorious Eighties

Leslie 1880–90
Kilmarnock 1883-86
Glasgow 1885-86
Dunblane 1886
Clydebank 1887-88
Early Work of Faith Mission
- Unnamed Location
- Islay


Leslie 1880–90

  When Thomas W. Lister became the pastor of the newly formed Baptist Church in the Fife town of Leslie in July 1880, he simply carried on the work he had already been doing with marked success for some years.  Converted as a lad at the age of twelve, Lister immediately began sharing his faith with schoolmates; regularly holding meetings with them under a bridge where they were free from interruptions. Many conversions took place, and the meetings, which were later transferred to Lister’s mother’s kitchen, grew in the course of years, especially when outreach was extended to the neighbouring villages of Walkerton, Balbirnie Square and Woodside. When Lister left school and accepted apprenticeship at the Union Bank, the work continued under his leadership, but eventually he had to decide on promotion to a bank in Govan or full-time ministry. Without hesitation, he plumped for the latter course of action; a church was formed and Lister accepted the call to be pastor.

  The influence of Lister’s mother, a woman of great spirituality and force of character, was considerable in these developments. She conducted kitchen meetings for young women and through these many who were employed in the spinning and bleaching mills were brought to Christ and joined the fellowship. Given that the town was largely Presbyterian and no new church had been formed there since the Disruption forty years previously, it is perhaps not surprising that considerable opposition should attend the new movement. Indeed, some converts were threatened with being evicted from their homes. However, the consistent witness of members and the Christian activities of the Lister family gradually wrought a change in people’s attitudes.

  In 1884 it was decided to construct a church building. Designed by Lister’s brother, John, it opened two years later – amazingly, with no attending debt. Growth continued over these years and during Lister’s ten-year period as pastor in Leslie, no fewer than 216 new members were registered, only twenty of whom were transfers from other churches. Lister became highly esteemed for his evangelistic endeavours, an activity in which he also proved strong in his next charge, at Rattray Street, Dundee. On one occasion, when ministering at Grantown On Spey, over one hundred professions of faith were noted, the results being said to have been without parallel there for thirty years. 1 


Kilmarnock 1883-86

  Among some Free Church congregations in North Ayrshire there developed a growing spirit of awakening towards the close of 1883. David Landsborough, 2 minister of Kilmarnock’s magnificent Henderson (Free) Church, traced the work in his congregation to young converts’ testifying to Christ before friends and neighbours. Good was also accomplished from meetings conducted by a converted Jew from London at the start of the winter. Six weekly district prayer meetings were started up as a result of the movement. 3 Over subsequent months, across the wider region, an increasing measure of spiritual activity developed, particularly in regard to the organisation of prayer meetings, the interest felt in young people’s Sabbath and Bible classes, and in personal evangelistic efforts. 4

  During the winter of 1884-85, the spirit of awakening deepened, particularly in Kilmarnock. Landsborough wrote that ‘in making arrangements for the district week-day prayer meetings…it was found, to our surprise, that there was no difficulty in obtaining workers – speakers, visitors and singers. It was also found that the people were specially ready to attend our meetings. Much greater encouragement followed, as ere the winter closed we rejoiced in several cases of conversion….It was manifest that God was causing droppings of a gracious shower to descend on His heritage when it was weary’. 5

  During the following winter a significant awakening developed throughout the town. This followed the arrival of a deputation of Christian students (preceded by a visit from Professor Calderwood) from Edinburgh University, where a remarkable spiritual movement was already in progress (see Glory in the Glen pp410-7). ‘The students spoke with great simplicity and earnestness, and without any attempt to make a show of themselves. God remarkably blessed their addresses. Perhaps it was more frequently at the after-meetings that light broke in upon those in darkness. Certain persons seemed to be particularly qualified to address the anxious, and were greatly blessed in doing so’. 6

  Meetings continued nightly for three weeks, before being given up in order to allow the students to return to their winter’s studies. The mission was wonderfully supported by nearly all of Kilmarnock’s ministers (who occasionally led the meetings in lieu of the students), and such was the interest that often two churches in town were completely full at the same time. Many conversions took place, resulting in ‘by far the most widespread’ awakening the Free Church minister had seen. ‘How entirely it has been the work of God appears in this’, Landsborough said, ‘that none were more surprised at the result of their labours than the students themselves’. 7


Glasgow 1885-86

  A remarkable work of grace began in Glasgow towards the close of 1885, particularly in the west-end and south-side. George Clark of London came to the city in connection with the Railway Mission and was invited to speak at ladies’ meetings in Kelvinside Free Church. In large numbers they professed their faith in Jesus, the consequence of which was that towards the close of a ten day mission the young men turned out to see what had created such an enthusiasm among their lady friends. ‘Before long the whole Kelvinside district was under movement’. 8

  Bible studies were held for the young converts to help equip them ‘for active aggressive work for Christ’. Some of the women went to Pollockshields to speak with their peers there. At first these meetings were not encouraging, but soon began ‘what has been described as a magnificent evangelistic movement among the young men of the better class in this district. A number were impressed at once, and took their stand on the side of Christ’. 9

  William A. Campbell, a Free Church elder, gave a detailed account of the work. ‘One Sabbath evening there were about 1,000 people in the church, and the young men, fine athletic fellows, the pick of the district, were invited at the close of the meeting to come to the body of the church for conversation about personal religion. Down they came from the galleries, until something like 350 were present and one could not help thinking what a power they would be in the city if they took their stand for Christ. A very large number, he was glad to say, had definitely decided for the Lord’. 10

  Interestingly, said Campbell, these young folk ‘did not have what was called deep conviction of sin. They felt that they were living careless lives, such lives that they did not care to sit down and calmly look into them. They felt they were leading useless lives to themselves and to the world; they found themselves in the grasp of sin, and they were aware they could do nothing to help themselves. They felt it was the living power of Christ alone that could change them and make them the men they felt they ought to be’. As a result, many came out boldly on the side of Christ and at once began witnessing to their faith. 11

  A Union was formed, which soon boasted 180 young ladies and 120 men, ‘all of them of the better classes in the West End of Glasgow’. A social meeting was organised; ‘The rooms – for the whole house was thrown open – were kept ringing with hymns the whole time’. A meeting on a larger scale was then held in the Burgh Hall of Hillhead. Invitations were sent to 280 persons, and only 45 refused. ‘It was’, wrote Campbell, ‘a marvellous treat to stand on the platform and see the faces of the audience in their evening dresses. Bright with the light of God was many a face which formerly had been dull and gloomy. The members knew the light which passed into the face when Christ was received into the heart, and it was remarked how even plain countenances became beautiful with the light of an indwelling Christ’. 12

  No difficulty was experienced in organising deputations of workers. ‘The young men go wherever they are asked, and in simple words they tell what Christ has done for their souls, and plead with others to come to the Saviour….They were men who placed themselves at the absolute disposal of Jesus Christ. They did not pick and choose what they wanted to do, but simply asked, “Does the Master call me? Then I go”. They were not looking at their gifts and saying, “I am not fitted for this or that”. They simply said, “If this is a call, the Master will fit me, and I am ready”. Nor were the young men to be found ‘apologising for being Christians; they were proud of their Master, and of the work in which they were engaged’. 13

  Asked some time after the commencement of the work if the converts were still standing fast, a minister intimately connected with the movement replied, ‘Why, not only are they standing fast, but I have not heard of a single declension. More than that, some of those who have been wavering at first on such questions as dancing, have come straight out’. 14 Another most encouraging feature had been the thorough co-operation between the ministers and the laity.

  The Rev. Ross Taylor admitted that the movement had taken most people, including himself, completely by surprise. He testified that during his eighteen years labouring in Glasgow, he had never seen as bright and fruitful a time as the winter of 1885-86. He derived four lessons from the movement. First was the importance of arousing the expectation of a blessing. The young converts had obtained the addresses of members of local football, cricket and other clubs, and had sent personal invitations to each of them. This was a novel feature of gospel preaching, and was largely accountable for the high attendance at the meetings. Second was the power of a frank, downright allegiance to Christ. Those attending meetings found them charged with a deep spiritual earnestness, which often led them on to enquiry. In their homes, too, converts ‘manifested so plainly that religion was a reality’ that parents and siblings were also awakened. 15  

Third was the importance of giving opportunities for honest, intelligent conversation to those who were genuinely struggling with intellectual difficulties. The fourth lesson was the importance of a youthful testimony. Ministers knew well, ‘the magnetic influence which young men exercised on one another, and it was their duty to encourage them not to repress themselves, but with all propriety, tact and humility to be true to Christ in daily life and in their intercourse with their companions and the world’. 16  

  Rev. Andrew recorded the success of his own charge in Glasgow. He had erected a wooden church to hold 350 people, but this had to be enlarged to hold a further hundred. Hardly a Sabbath night had passed during the whole of 1885 and up to April ’86, without cases of awakening. This he attributed to the earnest spirit of prayer among the people. He was well pleased to hear that nine men had been on their knees for an hour praying for a blessing on the Sabbath services, and he always had two of the elders in the vestry joining with him in prayer. His prayer meeting was attended by 250 or 300 people. 17  

  In Busby, the interest quickly became deep and widespread. A remarkable spirit of prayer was poured out on the people. Many came to meetings each night in their working clothes. On one ‘unforgettable’ evening, about four hundred were present, virtually all of who stayed till the after-meeting, and about two hundred to be spoken to. During the third week whole households were awakened and professed to accept the Saviour. Recalled Rev. Henderson, ‘Such was the impression made on the community that you could go up to any man you met and ask how it was with his soul and he would in no wise be surprised’. 18 168 people sent in cards professing first-time faith in Christ, 82 belonging to Henderson’s own congregation and 86 having no connection with the Busby Church. The converts ranged from fifteen to seventy years of age, and belonged to ‘all grades of society’. 19 ‘Mr. T. C.’ the evangelist employed by the Evangelisation Society at this time, said that this mission was the start for him of nearly sixteen years of gospel service in Scotland. ‘Frequently in the country I meet with those who at that time received the Lord’, he said. 20

  Rev. Wells of Pollockshields Free Church remarked on the detail and care which were ‘gladly lavished on all the obscurest details of the arrangements, as on the pins, loops and sockets of the tabernacle. “Thorough” was the motto from the first. This won attention and helped to create a high estimate of the opportunity. The newness of the scheme lifted it at once above the hackneyed and the conventional’. 21 As to the message proclaimed, this consisted purely of solid old gospel truths, set forth in a ‘very business-like fashion’ using everyday phrases and ‘without the faintest trace of sensationalism’. 22

  ‘We had also many appeals, but not more than in the Epistles, to true manliness, soldier-like heroism and chivalry in Christ’s service. Natural pride was certainly not humoured or flattered, for the irreligious young man was met on his own ground and very boldly charged with meanness, unmanliness and cowardice, as he was constantly living against his light and convictions. The justice of the charge seemed to be admitted by all. It was constantly maintained that real manhood was possible only to him who accepted the salvation and service of the alone perfect Man the world has seen’. 23

  Wells said the current awakening proved that on a large scale, previously indifferent young women, and especially young men, could easily become interested in the gospel. ‘No other cause in our city has shown the same power of interesting them. Science certainly has not drawn such audiences night after night, and week after week, nor has literature, nor politics, nor music. I am not sure that an exception can be made even in favour of the theatres. 24 Mr Wells expressed his belief, ‘that nearly every young man in Pollockshields knew some one of his coevals who was supposed to have been recently converted’. 25

  Elsewhere in Glasgow, Andrew Bonar, Free Church minister in Finnieston, considered in his diary several aspects of ‘the Lord’s recent ways in our city regarding revival work…The world has lost something of its power; prayer has been more real. Christ Himself seems more than formerly dwelling among us, and using such as myself to be instruments in His work'. 26 The eminent pastor pointed particularly to, ‘the manifested power of God’ in the Free Church at Cowcaddens, to the north of the city centre. Rev. William Ross, the minister there, reported nightly meetings, with ‘as many as 12, 15, and occasionally over 30 to speak to personally after a nightly service, with never an evening without any inquirer’. He said, ‘the results are astonishing, even to ourselves who have now been in the work for nearly two years and a half’. 27 (For more on the work in Cowcaddens Free Church, see Glory In The Glen pp90-4).

  In the spring of 1887 a special Report on the progress of the movement was submitted to the Presbytery of the Free Church. It showed that in a large number of congregations there was a steady advance in the ordinary work of the Church. Congregational missions were also said to be in a general state of vigorous efficiency, with several churches carrying on evangelistic work all year round. Further, special groups such as Sunday Schools, Bible classes and Y.M.C.A. meetings had generally grown in both numbers and enterprise. The overall impression was that the movement was still going on, though more quietly than before, and that definite, lasting good had come from it. 28


Dunblane 1886

  In February 1886 the Perthshire town of Dunblane was, in the words of one commentator, ‘stirred to its centre by a great religious revival’. 29 J. S. Bowie was Free Church minister in the town at the time. A native of Glasgow, Bowie was spiritually awakened in the winter of 1859, during the great revival that then began to spread around the country. It was shortly after this that ‘the fire of conviction, long smouldering, burst into flame’, 30 and the thirteen-year-old lad found peace of soul. Having for some time pastored a church in Cambeltown, where there was significant blessing on his ministry, Bowie was ‘unanimously elected’ to the Dunblane charge in 1873. On the first day of his work there Bowie predicted an outpouring of God’s blessing on his flock. And so it turned out, but not before a prolonged period of faithful preaching and aggressive evangelism on Bowie’s part. 31

  The immediate origin of the revival was a mission conducted in the Cathedral by Colonel Oldham and Mr. Anderson, the two evangelists of the Perthshire Christian Union. At first the meetings did not attract much attention in the town, and there was a feeling among the promoters that they would result in failure. The few who attended meetings consisted mainly of children and inquiry meetings were rarely taken advantage of. In time, however, attendance began to improve and at last the power of the Spirit of God was beginning to be felt. News of the work of grace accompanying the meetings spread quickly throughout the town, and finally issued in a general revival. With the ice of indifference at last broken, the Free and United Presbyterian ministers entered heartily into the work, giving a great boost to the encouraging results that followed. By now the hall could scarcely accommodate the numbers who crowded to hear the evangelists. As many as 150 at times attended the after-meetings to wait for personal conversation; albeit many of these were Christians seeking fresh light. 32

  The interest thus awakened in divine things communicated new life to all departments of the church. Those who benefitted most were children, and ‘those who form the middle class of the town’. 33 Church membership considerably increased and attendance at the weekly prayer meeting quadrupled. It was also noted that those who seemed to gain most good from the meetings were those who had special Christian influences brought to bear on them, e.g. members of the Bible Classes and Sunday School, as well as those who had had the advantage of training in a Christian home. White emphasised that the interest was not a mere passing enthusiasm that subsided when the excitement of the moment had passed. Rather, ‘a decided impression for good was made on the congregation’. 34 The Sunday after the evangelists left Dunblane happened to be Communion Day, and the attendance of members was so large that it was believed to have been unprecedented in the history of the congregation. This of course represented the effect of former church members, as the new conversions had not had time to affect the Communion roll. 35

  This effect of the awakening on existing members was very apparent during the remaining eighteen months that Bowie remained in Dunblane, and was still in evidence at the start of the following century. The 1886 revival was regarded by church members as one of the most important periods in their history; not only was it without parallel in the memory of the congregation, but in point of local interest and far-reaching effects it even excelled the results of the movements of 1859 and 1874.

  Meanwhile, in the heart of Perthshire, ‘a remarkable work of grace’ arose in some communities just to the north and west of Perth, notably Pitcairngreen, Almondbank, Huntingtower, Ruthven and Luncarty. With a growing longing for blessing developing among a number of praying folk, a group began to meet together on Saturday evenings to pray for blessing on the following day’s services and on the district generally. ‘This weekly prayer meeting’, records Glen Kippen, local Free Church minister, ‘may be regarded as the real beginning of the special work that followed in the month of June’, 1886. The Perthshire Christian Union began a series of fruitful meetings in several of the above-mentioned villages. In some places the work began among children, many of whom were thought to have undergone saving change. Young women and, especially, young men also avowed change of heart in significant numbers, and the tone of speech and behaviour at the public works was immediately altered. Altogether over 300 professed conversion. 36


Clydebank 1887-88

  Renowned Methodist preacher Samuel Chadwick experienced what his biographer described as three years of revival during his period of ministerial probation in Clydebank between 1887 and 1890. Born in Burnley in 1860 into a devout Methodist working-class family, Chadwick became a Christian at the age of ten. While in his teens, he sensed a strong call to the ministry and would rush home after a twelve-hour factory shift to engage in five hours of prayer and study. As a lay-preacher in Stacksteads, Lancashire in his early twenties, Chadwick experienced a fresh baptism in the Spirit. This added greater authority to his preaching and quickly thereafter revival spread through the valleys, with hundreds being converted to Christ.

  In 1886 the fiery young preacher moved to an Edinburgh circuit for a year, then to Clydebank, where a new church had just been completed, albeit ‘without congregation or prestige!’ 37 There was no reception for him, as nobody knew of his arrival. The first that people saw of him was at a street corner on Saturday night preaching the gospel. ‘He found a place which he thought was ideal for an open-air meeting. There was a row of houses opposite. He went to the end cottage and knocked at the door. It was opened by a big, bulky, strong-looking woman, with her sleeves rolled up above her elbows. Mr. Chadwick asked her if she would let him have a chair for an hour. “No!” she said, banging the door in his face. The young man was not dismayed. His first impulse was to ask at the cottage next door, but thinking he might get the same reply, he ventured to knock at the same door again. The same woman answered. The second time he asked for the chair. “I told you once”, she said, “you won’t get it”, and again the door was closed. He knocked a third time. The woman opened the door in a rage. “I want to give you a shilling for the loan of a chair”, said Mr. Chadwick. The woman was hesitant for a minute, then she replied, “why didn’t you tell me that at first?” She brought the chair and he put his hand in his pocket and gave her the shilling, saying, “I’ll give you another if you will come and hold it for me while I stand on it”.

  ‘The big woman walked across the square with the frail-looking little minister. He put the chair where he wanted it, stood on it, and told her to put her hand on the back of it. Then he turned round and gazed at her. What a scene for the middle of a Scottish town on a Saturday night! A young man standing on a chair, gazing down at a big, masculine-looking woman! Some people were passing, and they stayed to see what it was all about. The man on the chair uttered not a word. More people came and stood. Presently there was a crowd around. “What is it for?” shouted somebody. Mr. Chadwick did not answer. “He’s selling pills”, replied another. Still Mr. Chadwick did not speak. The crowd began to get excited. At the end of twenty minutes the woman had had enough, and bolted. Mr Chadwick preached to his first audience at Clydebank. Within a few days the whole town was talking about him. His church was soon full. His own converts became the first church officers, and three of his keenest workers he got from behind the publican’s counter 38 .

  Every Saturday night Chadwick stood in the open-air to preach, and remained for hours afterwards answering questions. Brewers had secured the most strategic positions in the neighbourhood for public-houses and drunkenness was a huge problem. Once, when applications were made for five new licences, Chadwick vigorously opposed the move in court. In all, scores of drunkards were converted through Chadwick’s ministry, and he became the trusted friend of the people. They brought their troubles to him and sent for him to settle their quarrels.

  By this time, the young minister’s name and reputation were becoming known throughout Methodism, and when he was ordained in 1890, he was called to be Superintendent of the Leeds Mission. Here, and again in Sheffield, Chadwick saw revival fires burn and hundreds of souls turn to Christ. The final phase of his life was spent as Principal of Cliff College, a Methodist training school for preachers situated in Hope Valley, near Sheffield, and it was here that he wrote his famous book, ‘The Way to Pentecost’, which was being printed when he died in 1932.


Early Work of Faith Mission

Unnamed Location

  J. G. Govan, energetic Principal of the newly established Faith Mission, relates the story of an early mission (1886 or ‘87) in an unnamed place considered ‘the hardest in the district’. 39 The first night one young woman came under deep conviction; before long both she and her friend were converted. Having both been ‘rather wild girls’, their conversion made a real stir in the community. At an open-air meeting shortly after, the presence of these girls, lives transformed, along with that of J. G. Govan and a Glaswegian friend who came to help out on his banjo, helped attract a huge crowd. ‘The Spirit of God was mightily with us’, declared Govan, ‘and that night revival began’. The next night, two other young friends came to help, so Govan asked them both to address the audience. ‘The one gave a tremendous talk about hell; he was too hot; the second was too quiet, and they both talked too long!’ Distraught, Govan cast himself on the Lord for guidance. He felt led to give a five minutes’ talk on how to get saved, ‘and the Spirit of God came mightily upon the meeting. At the close we had from forty to fifty at the penitent form, old and young, rich and poor’. 40

  After the service the two helpers, along with the happy converts, began marching round the hall repeatedly, joyously singing choruses. The local minister had never before seen such enthusiasm in church and sought, unsuccessfully, to bring the procession to a halt. He also took exception to them shouting ‘Hallelujah!’ – ‘It is only the ignorant who shout like that’, he exclaimed. Next day the Faith Mission got word to clear out of the hall, and a notice also appeared in the papers stating that future services would be conducted by the minister. Not to be outdone, the pilgrims got a chair, brought it down to the river-side and held their meetings there – ‘and nearly the whole of the town came to hear us’, wrote Govan, while ‘the minister had an audience of five’! 41



  A couple of years later (1889) Mission workers moved to Islay, where, from the first ‘the Spirit was poured out’. Initially it was mostly elderly people who professed conversion - at one packed meeting in Port Ellen, five older folk made commitments, one of them being so convicted he was crying like a child. In the farming district of Ballygrant, either the Parish Church or the schoolroom would be filled nightly with anxious crofters. One young man ran out of the house where the pilgrims were staying and down to the fields in attempt to get free from conviction. Such activity was to no avail, for ‘he and the rest of the family were beautifully saved before they left’.

  In Bowmore, many of the shopkeepers made commitments of faith and decided amongst themselves to close their shops early in order to get to the meetings. Children sang hymns in the streets and the revival was the topic of the town. At the evening meetings, some came to the penitent form again and again, ‘but most of them ultimately got through to a rejoicing faith’. On the closing Sunday of the campaign, 240 were present at the afternoon meeting, where 25 testimonies were shared. Many were melted to tears on hearing their friends testify, and three made professions of faith. Then, after the evening meeting, another ‘five children and fourteen adults professed’. Port Ellen was described as ‘a little heaven on earth, everyone so happy in the Lord, and all of one mind’. 42


1 during his days of retirement this indefatigable minister was called on; e.g. in 1931, to help the Hamilton Baptist Church during a time of crisis (D.W. Bebbington [Ed.] ‘The Baptists in Scotland: A History’, Glasgow 1988 p191)

2 The youngest son of the Rev. D. Landsborough (also a naturalist and author), Landsborough Jnr was ordained in 1851, and remained minister of Henderson Church for 51 years, lifting the church from serious debt and dwindling attendances.

3 ARC-FCS-SR&M 1884 pp60-61

4 Ibid. 1885 p56

5 ARC-FCS-SR&M 1886 p60

6 Ibid.

7 Ibid.

8 RC-FCS-SR&M 1886 p61

9 Ibid. A deputation of students spirited by the revival at the universities of Edinburgh and, to a lesser extent, Glasgow went to Pollokshields F.C. earlier in 1885 and helped to inaugurate a movement among the young men of that district (Bremmer ‘A Child of Faith’ p108)

10 Ibid.

11 Ibid.

12 Ibid. pp61-62

13 Ibid. p62

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid. p63

16 Ibid.

17 Ibid. p64

18 ‘Monthly Record of the Free Church of Scotland’ (hereafter ‘Monthly Record’)1886 p101

19 Ibid.

20 John Wood ‘The Story of the Evangelisation Society’, London 1907 p104

21 RC-FCS-SR&M 1886 p67

22 Ibid.

23 Ibid.

24 Ibid. pp67-68

25 Monthly Record’ 1886 p102

26 Bonar ‘Diary’ p349

27 Monthly Record’ 1886 p102. It was during this period also, from the start of 1885 to the end of 1886, that membership of White Memorial Free Church grew from zero to around 500. Following the main Sabbath evening service, which was attended by some 700 people, a second meeting was held, which never failed to attract a number of anxious souls (ARC-FCS-SR&M 1887 p60)

28 Monthly Record’ 1887 p174

29 Robert White, Semi-Jubilee of Rev. John S. Bowie: Sketch of his Life and Work,  Edinburgh, 1900, p22

30 Ibid.

31 Ibid. p23

32 Ibid.

33 RC-FCS-SR&M 1887 p18

34 White, Semi-Jubilee of Rev. John S. Bowie,  p23

35 Ibid. pp23-24. Just a couple of years later, in 1888, a further good work was accomplished among the young in Dunblane, with a number of young lads coming out ‘boldly and manifestly for Christ’ (ARC-FCS-SR&M 1889 p47)

36 RC-FCS-SR&M 1887 p17

37 Norman Dunning ‘Samuel Chadwick’, London 1933 p57

38 Ibid. pp65-66

39 Sensitively, Govan did not name the location, having no desire to bring discredit or embarrassment to the minister concerned

40 Govan In the Train of His Triumph, pp33-34

41 Ibid. pp34-35

42 Govan, Spirit of Revival, pp76-78



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